Kyoto Agreement On Climate Change

Finally, instead of giving China and India a passport to pollution, as Trump asserts, the pact is the first time these two major developing countries have agreed on concrete and ambitious climate commitments. The two countries, which are already poised to be world leaders in renewable energy, have made considerable progress in achieving their Paris goals. And since Trump announced his intention to withdraw the United States from the agreement, the Chinese and Indian leaders have reaffirmed their commitment and continued to implement domestic policies to achieve their goals. The World Bank (2010) [120] stated that the Kyoto Protocol had had little impact on controlling global emissions growth. The treaty was negotiated in 1997, but by 2006 energy-related carbon dioxide emissions had increased by 24%. [121] The World Bank (2010) also stated that the treaty had provided only limited financial assistance to developing countries to help them reduce their emissions and adapt to climate change. [120] China, India, Indonesia and Brazil were not required to reduce their CO2 emissions. The other signatory states were not required to implement a common framework or specific measures, but to achieve an emissions reduction target for which they can benefit from a secondary market for multilateral electronic loans, which are traded multilaterally. [138] The Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) has enabled countries to host polluting industries and to buy ownership of their ecological virtues and virtues from other countries. [138] Experts say that the main weakness of the Kyoto Protocol is that developing countries have not committed to climate targets. The economies of countries such as China, India and Indonesia experienced rapid growth in subsequent years, as did their greenhouse gas emissions.

In an effort to “significantly reduce the risks and effects of climate change,” the agreement calls for the average increase in global temperature over this century to be well below 2 degrees Celsius, while continuing efforts to limit temperature rise to 1.5 degrees. It also calls on countries to commit as quickly as possible to comparing global greenhouse gas emissions and to become carbon neutral by the second half of this century. To achieve these goals, 186 countries – responsible for more than 90% of global emissions – presented CO2 reduction targets prior to the Paris conference, known as “determined national contributions” (INDC). These targets set out the commitments made by each country to reduce emissions until 2025 or 2030, including macroeconomic targets for co2 reduction and individual commitments of some 2,250 cities and 2,025 companies. The United States withdrew from the agreement in 2001 and unfairly characterized the treaty because it only required industrialized countries to reduce their emissions and felt that it would hamper the U.S. economy. Starting in 2020, the United States is the only signatory that has not ratified the protocol. [104] In 1990, the United States accounted for 36% of emissions. For the treaty to enter into force without ratification by the United States, it would require a coalition including the EU, Russia, Japan and smaller parties.

During the Bonn climate talks (COP-6.5) in 2001, an agreement was reached without the US government. [105] However, it is important to remember that the Paris agreement is not static.

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